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The aggressive Zulfi Khan invaded the land and looted the place after cruel killings. His rule remined from 1300-1320 AD. He died fighting at Devasar Pass. After a few palace intrigues Prince Rinchen came to power. He soon got converted to Islam and was henceforth known as Sultan sadru-ud-din. Great architecture like the Jama Masjid and Ziyarat are his contribution to the land. After his death a few short lived rulers came to power. The Mohammedan rule had its inception from 1339. Zain-ul-ad-ul-din an illustrious ruler 1420-70 constructed several canals and bridges and worked successfully for the welfare of the state. Hindu temples were given its rightful places and many of them were restored. Hindu learning was part of the state policy. In 1532 Turkish ruler Marza Haider ruled for a brief duration; in 1586 came under the rule of Emperor Akbar.

Henceforth Akbar was in Kashmir three times and made changes in the revenue policies. Fort Hari Parbat is his contribution to the land. Akbar’s son Jehangir laid out the Shalimar and Nishat Bagh. He spent summer months here with his beautiful wife Nurjehan. During the rule of the Mughals Kashmir saw a spell of prosperity and disorder prevailed when the repressive rule of Afghans took over the state in 1750. The population was forcefully converted to Islam. The local people wished to escape from the clutches of the tyrant ruler and contacted the Sikh ruler of Punjab Ranjit Singh for help. Afghans were defeated by the Sikh ruler in 1819 and Kashmir was annexed. The Muslim rule lasted for 500 years. After the demise of Ranjit Singh Gulab singh a Dogra Rajput of Jammu ruled the valley with consent from the British; In 1857 Gulab singh son Ranbir Singh came to power and remained a ruler till his death in 1885. Maharaja Pratap Singh the ruler from 1885-1925 and Maharaja Hari Singh rule from 1925-1950 introduced the state to modern living. In 1925 Hari Singh succeeded Partab Singh and he was the ruler when India became independent on 15th August 1947. The British gave the option to 570 princely states ruled through hereditary succession to be part of either India, Pakistan or remain independent. Most of the states made independent decision but conflict arose in some states. The Kashmir region was given semi-autonomy. UN divided the region between India and Pakistan along the cease-fire line in the year 1949. A few battles have been between India and Pakistan in 1948, 1965 and 1971 but the main issue stands unresolved. The proxy war through terrorism has taken many lives and disturbed the peace of the region. Elections were held in 1997 in J&K state and an elected government over sees the law and order of the state. Tourism has revived and national and international travelers no longer fear to visit the state for holiday making.

Major Cities of Kashmir

How To Reach Kashmir

  • BY AIR
    • Srinagar the summer capital of the state of Jammu & Kashmir- situated at an altitude of 5500 feet has a pleasant climate-neither too hot nor too cold. It is well connected with the rest of the country with all major Airlines like Air India, Kingfisher, Jet Airways, Jet-lite, Spice Jet, Go Air and Indigo who operate daily flights to Srinagar.
    • Srinagar International Airport(14KM from the city) Srinagar has a new international airport capable of handling a large number of incoming and outgoing flights. This boots Tourism to this romantic, enchanting, idyllic yet lively valley.

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    • Upto Jammu Jammu & Kashmir is connected to the rest of the country by Jammu Tawi and Udhampur Railway Station receiving number of regular trains and holiday and festival specials form major towns of the country. Kashmir valley receives most of the Tourist by Rail/ Road through 293 km long Jammu-Srinagar National highway. These trains operate to Jammu Tawi and Udhampur.

      • Pune (1077/1078- Jhelum Express)
      • Jabalpur(1449/1450)
      • Howrah 2331/2332 – Himgiri
      • Rajender Nagar, New Delhi(2355/2356- Archana)
      • Jaipur 2413/2414
      • New Delhi 2425/2426- Rajdhani
      • Bandra Mumbai 2471/2472- Swaraj
      • Ahmadabad 2473/2474- Sarvodaya
      • Hapa(Gujarat)2475/2476
      • Jamnagar 2477/2478
      • Madurai 6786/6788 Link
      • Tatanagar 8101/8102
      • Hatia(Jharkhand)8601/8602-link
      • Ahmadabad 9223/9224
      • Gorakhpur 2587/2588- Amaranth
      • Indore 2919/1920- Malwa
      • Kolkata 3151/3152
      • Delhi 4033/4034- Jammu mail
      • Barauni- Bihar 5097/5098
      • Gauhati 5651/5652- Lohit
      • Gauhati 5653/5654- Amaranth
      • Chennai 6031/6032- Andaman
      • Kannyakumari 6317/6318- Himsagar
      • Mangalore 6687/6318- Navyug
      • Bhatinda 9225/9226
      • New Delhi- Udhampur 244512446- Uttar samparak
      • Mumbai CST
      • Ludhiana- Rajdhani

  • BY ROAD FROM JAMMU TO KASHMIR VALLEY There is every mode of road transport available at the Jammu railway station. Tourist Reception centre, the General bus stand, the J & K state Road Transport Corporation coaches, private coaches, taxies of every make and model. The route to the valley is a scenic one and passes through kud, Patnitop, Banihal and the Jawahar Tunnel. The transport rates are fixed officially and can be verified. The hilly journey from Jammu to Srinagar takes 8-12 hours and Enroute there are eating places like pida famous for the local Specialty rajma –Chawal, ramban for Patisa Prepared in desi ghee, Private hotels and tourist huts for rest and relaxation.

Recreation And Sporting Activities

  • SRINAGAR Golf, Swimming, water skiing, Surf riding boating, Shikara ride, canoeing, bird- watching, visit to dachgam National Park, Walks & jogging in the pollution free and clean Oxygen- rich air and club activities.

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  • PAHALGAM Trekking, Hiking Horse riding, white water rafting, Golf, Fishing, children Amusement park, club visits.
  • GULMARG Golf, horse riding, sledging, snow skiing, gondola ride, trekking, hiking and jungle walks and of course club activities.
  • SONMARG Horse riding, sledging, white water rafting, trekking, fishing camping, heli skiing.
  • YUSMARG Skiing, trekking, camping, pony ride.

Taxi And Transport In Kashmir

  • State Road Transport Corporation, tourist Reception Centre, Srinagar Operates Coaches to Delhi, Jammu, Ladakh, Pahalgam, Gulmarg, Sonmarg & for Mughal Gardens( Group booking only)

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  • Tourist taxi stand No 1, Tourist Reception Centre, Srinagar. Taxis are also available on shared basis.
  • Tourist Taxi stands Lal chowk, Srinagar.
  • Tourist Taxi stands Nehru Park, Srinagar.
  • Tourist Taxi stand, Tanga Bagh, Boulevard, Srinagar.
  • Taxi & minibus stand, Ghanta Ghar, Lal Chowk for morning services to Jammu and Ladakh on Shared basis.
  • General Bus stands Batamalo for bus services for all Tourist places.

Restaurants In Srinagar

  • Cafe Arabica Maulana Azad Road.
  • Cafe Robusta, Maulana Azad Road.

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  • Ahdoo's Restaurant, residency Road.
  • Grand restaurant, residency road.
  • Tao cafe (open air restaurant), Residency road.
  • Mughal Durbar residency Road.
  • Alka Salka, Residency Road.
  • Cafe the Linz, Residency Road.
  • Shamayana, Boulevard Road, Dalgate.
  • Talk of Srinagar, Boulevard Road.
  • Cafe Coffe Day, boulevard Road.
  • Cafe coffe Day, boulevard Road.
  • Krishna Dhaba(vegetarian), Durga Nag.
  • Tourist Cafeteria, atop rustom gari hill, Dalgate, srinagar Manage of Department of Tourism.
  • Nathu’s Boulevard Road.
  • Punjabi Rasoi, Boulevard Road.
  • Rattan's Bar-Be-Que, Amira Kadal.
  • cafe chinar, the Lalit Grand Palace
  • hat trick, raj Bagh.
  • Khana Khazana, Hari singh Street, srinagar.
  • Jee Enn & sons, M.A Road, srinagar.
  • Mehfil Residency Road srinagar.
  • Noor Restaurant, Boulevard, srinagar.
  • Rest point, Bemina, srinagar.
  • Samci, Residency Road, srinagar.
  • Baghdadi, Shaltang, srinagar.
  • Banana Leaf, Khanyar, Srinagar.
  • Peerzoo Restaurant, on the bank of River Jhelum, Near GPO, srinagar manage by Hotel Management Institute.

Shopping In Srinagar

  • Kashmir Govt. Arts Emporium, Abdullah Bridge.
  • Kashmir Govt. Arts Emporium, Boulevard Bridge.

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  • Polo view Market, residency Road.
  • Auqaf shopping Complex, Dalgate.
  • Boulevard Shopping complex, Boulevard.
  • Regal chowk.
  • Residency Road.
  • Fairdeal Shooping Complex, residency Road.
  • Lal Chowk and Kokar Bazar
  • Hari Singh High Street.
  • Central Market, Jehangir chowk.
  • S.R. Gunj, Old City.
  • FOR BATS: Bijbehara-on srinagar- Jammu National Highway.


  • SMHS Hospital, Karan Nagar, Srinagar. Telephone: 0194-2452023/2477378/2479063
  • Sheri Kashmir Institute of Medical sciences, soura. Telephone: 0194-2401014/2493104

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  • G.B. Pant Children and Maternity Hospital, sonwar Bagh (Opp. Hotel Shangri-La) Srinagar. Telephone: 0194-2469988
  • Bone & Joint Hospital, Barzulla, srinagar} Telephone: 0194-2430149/2432135
  • Lala Ded Hospital (Maternity), Lal Mandi, Srinagar. Telephone: 0194-2477527/2452017

  • Modern Hospital, Rajbagh, Srinagar. Telephone: 01942477827/2489290
  • Ramzana Hospital, gogji Bagh, Srinagar. telephone: 0194-2310045/2311809

Hospital and Medical Facilities are available at Major tourist spots and Pilgrim Centers.

Chemists & Druggists

  • Dhar Chemists, Dalgate, Srinagar.
  • Bindroo chemsts, Iqbal park, Srinagar.

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  • Johnson Medicate, Dalgate, Srinagar.
  • Aaliya Medicate, Budshah Chowk.
  • Shafi Medicate, Pahalgam.
  • Wani Medicate, Pahalgam.

Note: The Medical Shops are Open Till late Hours Outside all the Hospitals.


  • Catholic Church, Maulana Azad Road, srinagar.
  • Protestant Church, Church Lane, sonwar, Srinagar.